Census Statistics

Foreign Born Population, Place of Birth: 1870-1890, 1900-1950, 1960-1990, 2000-2016, 2019

Race and Hispanic Origin: 1830-1990, 2000, 2010

Nativity: 1850-2000

Newark Timeline [Mayoral elections are listed starting in 1900]

History of the Black Community 1666-1970

1666 Newark founded

1680 First African Americans in region

1818 African Society of Newark founded.

1820s Irish immigrants begin arriving. In 1900 and 1910, there are still over 10,000 Newark residents born in Ireland.

1822 Clinton AME Zion church founded.

1830 The census records 16 slaves and 648 free blacks in Newark.

1840s Germans begin arriving in Newark. In 1900 and 1910, there are still over 20,000 Newark residents born in Germany.

1847 Jewish immigrants are arriving (from Germany); first synagogue founded.

1852 First public colored school founded.

1864 James Baxter becomes first African American school principal in the building that becomes State Street School

1870 34% of Newark's population was born in a different country.

1870s Italians begin arriving. The number of Italians in Newark peaks between 1910 and 1960 when numbers of those born in Italy are always above 20,000 (see census data above).

1880s Many European immigrants arriving including Polish, Lithuanian and first Spanish.

1889William Ashby born.

1903 Henry Doremus becomes Mayor.

1907 Jacob Haussling becomes Mayor.

1910 Start of first Great Migration. Census data shows African Americans jumped from about 3% of the population in 1910 to almost 9% in 1930.

1910-1916 Ashby's reflection on "the life of Negroes in Newark" spans these years.

1911 This map shows nationalities in Newark at this time.

1917 America enters World War One. Essex County Urban League is founded.

1920s First Portuguese immigrants. By 1980, Newark had over 14,000 residents born in Portugal. Estimates place 3,000 residents in Newark's Chinatown.

1925 Thomas Raymond becomes Mayor.

1928 Jerome Congleton becomes Mayor.

1930 Newark's population peaks at over 442,000, according to census data.

1933 Meyer Ellenstein becomes Newark's only Jewish mayor.

1938 Newark Housing Authority established.

1941 America enters World War II. Vincent Murphy becomes Mayor.

1941 Start of Second Census data shows African Americans jumped from about 11% of the population in 1940 to 34% in 1960.

1944 The YMCA writes this report on "The Newark Interracial Situation"

1946 Newark Eagles baseball team wins the Negro World Series.

1949 Ralph Villani becomes Mayor.

1950s Large waves of Puerto Ricans began to come to Newark

1953 Newark Human Rights Commission is founded. Leo Carlin becomes Mayor.

1955 Clinton Hill Neighborhood Council founded.

1957 This report on Group Relations in Newark is written. Newark's first councilwoman is appointed Sophie Cooper (reelected 1958).

1960s Samuel Berg's photos show Newark during this period.

1960s Large number of Cuban immigrants: under 1,000 Cuban-born residents in 1950, 7,000 by 1970

1961 ASPIRA is founded.

1962 La Tribuna first published. Hugh Addonizio becomes Mayor.

1963 BICC is founded.

1966 Tri City Citizens' Union for Progress is founded.

1967 Newark Rebellion / Riots, Black Power Conference

1969 Ironbound Community Corporation is founded. Conklin Hall protest.

1970 First African American Mayor: Ken Gibson elected

1971 PREA is founded, Wynona Lipman becomes first African American woman elected to the Senate in NJ.

1973 Newark's first councilwoman-at-large Marie Villani appointed (reelected 1974).

1974 First annual Black Film Festival.

1975 El Club Del Barrio is founded.

1976 This report on the Hispanic community was written.

1980 The first Blacks in New Jersey report is written.

1986 Second African American Mayor: Sharpe James elected

1987 HUD Tenants Coalition founded.

1990s Large number of Brazilian, Ecuadorian and Dominican Republic immigrants. Numbers of Newark residents born in these countries at least triple between 1990 and 2010.

1994 Newark's first African American Councilwoman elected: Mildred Crump.

2006 Cory Booker elected Mayor

2013 Luis Quintana becomes first Hispanic Mayor (Interim).

2014 Ras Baraka elected Mayor

2016 In the latest census estimates new groups of immigrants continue to arrive with almost 80,000 residents born in other countries, over 9,000 people born in Africa, over 4,000 born in Asia, over 9,000 born in Europe, and over 55,000 born in Latin America. Populations like those from the Dominican Republic also continue to increase contributing to Newark's over 55,000 residents born in Latin America.